Introduction to the production and function of HCG and the application of chlamydia test walgreens
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), produced primarily by differentiated syncytiotrophoblasts, is a key embryonic signal necessary for the maintenance of pregnancy. hCG can activate various signaling levels in multiple cell types through binding to luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) or possibly through direct/indirect interaction with transforming growth factor beta receptor (TGFβR) Cascade reactions, including maternal anti-descapone paralysis homologue 2 (Smad2), protein kinase C (PKC) and/or protein kinase A (PKA). This molecule exhibits specific roles in promoting uterine endothelial angiogenesis, maintaining myometrium quiescence, and promoting immunomodulation at the maternal-fetal interface. It is a member of the glycoprotein hormone family that includes luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The α subunit of hCG has homology with TSH, LH and FSH, while the β subunit has 80-85% homology with LH. The hCG molecule is produced by various organs, exists in various forms, performs important biological functions, and has various clinical roles ranging from diagnosis and monitoring of pregnancy and pregnancy-related diseases to cancer monitoring.
During the first trimester, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), produced primarily by differentiated syncytiotrophoblasts, is a key embryonic signal necessary to maintain pregnancy dehydrogenation. During the first 3 weeks of pregnancy, hCG promotes the secretion of progesterone, estradiol, and estrone by converting the postovulatory ovary into the corpus luteum of pregnancy. In addition, hCG binding to its receptor plays an important role in promoting uterine endothelial angiogenesis, maintaining myometrial quiescence and promoting immune regulation by changing dendritic cell activity, reducing T cell activation and cytokine production, promoting T regulatory (Treg) cell recruitment and It plays a particular role in increasing uterine natural killer (NK) cell proliferation at the maternal-fetal interface . Metabolism of hCG by the placenta, liver, blood and kidneys determines its steady-state levels. Measurement of serum or urine hCG levels provides important information in a variety of clinical situations, such as diagnosis and monitoring of pregnancy and pregnancy-related disorders, prenatal screening, and gynecological cancers.
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