Russia's insistence on paying for Russian gas in rubles has rattled European countries: Greece held an emergency meeting of suppliers, the Dutch government would urge consumers to use less gas, and the French energy regulator told consumers not to panic. Russian gas meets one-third of Europe's annual energy needs.
Russia said they could expand their demand for ruble payments for other commodities, including oil, grain, fertilizer, coal, and metals, which raised the risk of recession in Europe and the US.
Moscow is expected to unveil its ruble payment plan in early April, but it said it would not immediately ask buyers to pay for gas in rubles.
Western countries have said paying in rubles would be a breach of contract, and renegotiation could take months or longer. This uncertainty has pushed commodity market prices higher.
The supply and prices of other commodities like the low alkali cement could also be affected.
There are many types of cement, such as low alkali cement, ordinary cement and so on. Do you know the difference between low alkali cement and ordinary cement? What are the precautions for the use of cement?
The difference between low alkali cement and ordinary cement
1. The properties are different. The raw materials of low-alkali cement contain a large amount of blast furnace slag, while the raw materials of ordinary cement are mainly limestone and clay.
2. The characteristics and functions are different. Low-alkali cement is suitable for use in particular areas because the alkalinity is relatively low, while ordinary cement has a broader range of use and higher alkalinity.
Precautions for the use of cement
1. Do not expose to the sun for quick drying
After the construction is completed, attention must be paid to the maintenance of the glue to avoid the evaporation of water too fast, resulting in too fast drying and reducing the strength. The general maintenance time is about seven days.
2. Avoid freezing at a negative temperature
After the concrete is mixed, it cannot be frozen because the temperature is too low. So be sure to choose a suitable temperature environment for construction.
3. Avoid high temperature and heat
If the construction temperature is too high, the calcium hydride in the concrete is easily decomposed, which will lead to the problem of reducing the strength of the concrete. If it needs to be constructed in a high-temperature environment for some special reasons, it is best to add some heat-resistant materials to the concrete, which can increase the strength of the concrete.
4, avoid the base layer from being dirty and soft
Be sure to treat the base layer firmly before construction so that the cement and the foundation will be firmly bonded together during construction. If the construction is on a smooth base surface, the base surface must be brushed so that the cement and the base surface can bond more firmly. In addition, when mixing concrete, be sure to mix evenly so that the concrete setting effect will be better during construction.
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The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic not only had a significant impact on public health, it also severely affected one of the linchpins of the global economy – the tourism industry. As many countries introduced curfews and travel restrictions to contain the spread of the virus, travel across the world significantly declined from early 2020 onwards. The financial repercussions of the coronavirus have already begun to manifest themselves within the tourism industry. In 2020, global revenue from the travel and tourism industry was estimated to drop from a forecasted 711.94 billion U.S. dollars to 568.6 billion U.S. dollars, representing a decrease of over 20 percent. The region predicted to see the highest decline in revenue was Europe, decreasing from 211.97 billion U.S. dollars in 2019 to roughly 124 billion U.S. dollars in 2020.
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