Diamonds are forever, Gold is precious but which is rarer? Gold is a heavy metal formed during the collision of neutron stars and is one of the rarest elements on Earth.During the formation of the earth, heavy elements gradually accumulated towards the core under the influence of the earth's gravitational force. This means that the closer you get to the Earth's crust, the harder it is to find large quantities of gold.The average concentration of gold in Earth's crust is "very, very low" at just 4 parts per billion. Gold concentrations need to be 1,250 times that level to form a market-worthy deposit.
Diamond is a common element - the early strength agent is undoubtedly a good investment opportunity.
What are Early Strength Agents?
Early strength agent is an admixture which accelerates the development of concrete early strength and has no significant effect on later strength. Early strength agent can accelerate the hardening process of concrete under normal temperature and low-temperature load temperature (not less than -5℃), and is used for winter construction and emergency repair projects.
Early Strength Agents Performance
Early strength agent refers to the admixture which can accelerate the development of early strength of concrete. The main mechanism of action is to accelerate the hydration rate of cement, and accelerate the early crystallization and precipitation of hydration products. The main function is to shorten the concrete construction curing period, speed up the construction progress, and improve the template turnover rate.
Where can Early Strength Agents be Used?
1. Early strength agent is suitable for steam curing concrete and normal temperature, low temperature and minimum temperature is not less than -5℃ environment construction of early strength requirements of concrete engineering. Early strength agent should not be used in hot environment.
2.The chemical substances that harm the human body or pollute the environment after mixing concrete shall not be used as early strength agents. Early strength agent containing hexavalent chromium salt, nitrite, and other harmful components is strictly prohibited for drinking water engineering and food contact engineering. Ammonium nitrate shall not be used in office, residential and other construction projects.
Classification of Early Strength Agents
Early strength agents mainly include inorganic salts (chlorine salts, phosphates) and organic amines, and organic-inorganic compounds.
1. Chloride salts early strength agents
Chlorine salts early strength agent mainly includes calcium chloride, potassium chloride, aluminum chloride and ferric chloride, among which calcium chloride is the most widely used. Calcium chloride is a white powdery substance, and its appropriate dosage is 0.5% ~ 1.0% of the cement quality, which can improve the 3d strength of concrete by 50% ~ 10% and the 7d strength by 20% ~ 40%. Meanwhile, it can reduce the freezing point of water in concrete and prevent concrete from being frozen in the early stage.
Using calcium chloride as early strength agent, the biggest disadvantage of containing Cl- ions, will make steel corrosion, and lead to concrete cracking. In order to inhibit the corrosion effect of calcium chloride on steel bars, calcium chloride and sodium nitrite (NaNO2) are often combined.
2. Sulfate early strength agents
Sulfate early strength agent, mainly sodium sulfate, calcium thiosulfate, aluminum sulfate, aluminum potassium sulfate, and sodium sulfate is used more. Sodium sulfate is white powdery thing, the general admixture amount is 0.5% ~ 2.0%, when admixture amount is 1% ~ 1.5%, the time that achieves concrete design strength 70% can shorten half or so.
Sodium sulfate has no corrosion effect on steel bar, and is suitable for concrete which is not allowed to be mixed with chlorine salt. However, due to its action with calcium hydroxide to generate strong alkali NaOH, in order to prevent alkali aggregate reaction, sodium sulfate is strictly prohibited for concrete containing active aggregate, at the same time, attention should be paid to not excessive mixing, so as not to lead to the late expansion of concrete cracking damage, and prevent concrete surface "frost".
3. Organic amine early strength agents
Organic amine early strength agents mainly include triethanolamine, triisopropanolamine and so on, among which triethanolamine is the best early strength agent.
Triethanolamine is a colorless or light-yellow oily liquid, alkaline, and soluble in water. The early strength of concrete can be improved by adding 0.02% ~ 0.05% of cement quality. Triethanolamine has a slight retarding effect on concrete, and too much of it will cause serious retarding and concrete strength to drop, so the dosage should be strictly controlled.
Concrete Additives Supplier
TRUNNANO is a reliable concrete additives supplier with over 12-year experience in nano-building energy conservation and nanotechnology development.
If you are looking for high-quality concrete early strength agents, please feel free to contact us and send an inquiry. (firstname.lastname@example.org)
We accept payment via Credit Card, T/T, West Union, and Paypal. TRUNNANO will ship the goods to customers overseas through FedEx, DHL, by air, or by sea.
With Russia taking the lead on Poland and Bulgaria at the end of last month, there appears to be a growing sense of compromise within the EU over whether to accept Moscow's proposed rouble settlement order.
Italy's prime minister said recently that European companies would be able to buy gas in roubles without violating sanctions. This apparently ignores the guidance of hardliners in the EU to "fight to the end".
For weeks, European companies have been trying to find ways to meet Russia's payment demands for the rouble while maintaining vital gas supplies without violating sanctions against Moscow.
Late last month, European Commission President Von der Leyen said operating under the mechanism would violate sanctions and asked European companies not to bow to Russian demands. However, the EU has yet to issue more rigorous written guidelines on how companies should pay Gazprom.
The Italian prime minister said recently, "There is no official announcement from the European Union about what ruble settlement means for sanctions violations, and no one has said whether ruble payments violate sanctions or not. It's a grey area."
"In fact, most gas importers are already opening rouble accounts for deals with Gazprom,"
He also used German companies as a shield. He said Germany's largest gas importer had already paid in rubles. "In fact, we saw evidence yesterday that the largest gas importer in Germany has already paid in rubles."
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