Scientists Use 3D Printing to Print Non-magnetic Metal Powders into Magnetic Alloys
The purchasing pace at the demand end of the international thermal coal market continues to slow down and the international thermal coal price continues to decline. Prices for thermal coal at major international ports continued to fall last week as buyers in Europe slowed in recent days for April, coupled with weaker-than-expected import demand from End users in China. According to China Coal Market net monitoring: Australia Newcastle port thermal coal price index was 253 USD/ton, compared with 309.02 USD/ton, down 56.02 USD/ton, down 18.13%. South Africa's Port Richards thermal coal price Index was $264.5 / mt, down the US $62.72 / mt or 19.17% from US $327.22 / mt. The European ARA Tri-port thermal coal price Index was $281.8 / ton. Does the price of thermal coal in major international ports continue to decline to affect the price of the 3D printing metal powder?
Scientists at Skoltech University in Russia used a 3D printer to create an alloy of two materials whose composition ratios varied from one region of the sample to the next, and the resulting alloy had gradient magnetism, even though none of the initial materials were magnetic.
3D printing, a rapid prototyping method, is maturing for aircraft parts, medical implants and prosthetics, jewelry, custom shoes, and more.
The main advantage of 3D printing is the ability to create objects with very complex shapes that are either too expensive to produce or completely impossible to produce using traditional casting, rolling, stamping, or machining methods. 3D printing speeds up prototyping time and offers greater flexibility in product personalization and the number of batches. Another significant advantage of 3D printing is its low waste.
However, 3D printing has its limitations, requiring objects to be made entirely of homogeneous materials or mixtures. If the composition is different in different parts of the product, it is possible to obtain samples with changing characteristics. For example, A bar made of an alloy of two metals has A variable ratio of composition: one end starts with 100 percent of metal A, then 50 percent of each, then 100 percent of metal B, and so on. Thus, the properties of the obtained materials (including magnetic materials) can vary in a gradient, which makes them potentially useful for the manufacture of motor rotors, magnetic encoder strips, transformers, etc.
Skoltech scientists have researched and made such a kind of material, with the original ingredients A and B being two alloys: aluminum-bronze (copper, aluminum, and iron) and austenitic stainless steel (iron, chromium, and nickel, among others). Both alloys are paramagnetic, which means they are not attracted by magnets. But if you mix them, you get what's called a "soft magnetic material" ferromagnet, which is attracted to a permanent magnet.
The researchers used the two paramagnetic materials to create a gradient alloy. They used an InssTekMX-1000 3D printer, which works by depositing material using directional energy action, feeding a powdery material, and melting it with a laser at the same time. The resulting materials exhibit varying degrees of ferromagnetic properties, depending on the proportions of the components.
The researchers also theorized that the atomic structure of the alloy contributes to the expression of ferromagnetism in the alloy: although both materials have so-called face-centered cubic crystal structures, the combination results in a magnetic body-centered cubic structure.
Gradient soft magnetic alloys can be used in mechanical engineering, for example, in the production of electric motors. The results also show that the method of surface treatment of materials using directional energy action can not only obtain gradient materials using 3D printing but also discover new alloys. The technology is efficient and suitable for the rapid production of large parts.
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With Russia taking the lead on Poland and Bulgaria at the end of last month, there appears to be a growing sense of compromise within the EU over whether to accept Moscow's proposed rouble settlement order.
Italy's prime minister said recently that European companies would be able to buy gas in roubles without violating sanctions. This apparently ignores the guidance of hardliners in the EU to "fight to the end".
For weeks, European companies have been trying to find ways to meet Russia's payment demands for the rouble while maintaining vital gas supplies without violating sanctions against Moscow.
Late last month, European Commission President Von der Leyen said operating under the mechanism would violate sanctions and asked European companies not to bow to Russian demands. However, the EU has yet to issue more rigorous written guidelines on how companies should pay Gazprom.
The Italian prime minister said recently, "There is no official announcement from the European Union about what ruble settlement means for sanctions violations, and no one has said whether ruble payments violate sanctions or not. It's a grey area."
"In fact, most gas importers are already opening rouble accounts for deals with Gazprom,"
He also used German companies as a shield. He said Germany's largest gas importer had already paid in rubles. "In fact, we saw evidence yesterday that the largest gas importer in Germany has already paid in rubles."